The anomaly grew from 3 sigma to 4 sigma
On July 1st, I just updated the title of this article - originally posted on June 24th - because the D0 Collaboration has just posted a new preprint in which the anomaly grew from 3.2 to 3.9 sigma, or 4.2 sigma if counted more inclusively, once 9/fb of collisions were analyzed.
See also Resonaances and a supersymmetric interpretation of this signal.
The anomaly grew from 3 sigma to 4 sigma
Today, despite the significant competition, the best TRF-awarded hep-th paper was:
Gordon has recommended to me to read an essay by Chris Mooney in DeSmogBlog (which made him upset):
He started with a Yale University's survey which concluded that the more people know about the climate, the more skeptical they become. Needless to say, if the relationship were the opposite one (that skepticism decreases with education and intelligence), and Mooney indeed indicates that the more educated leftists could be more alarmist, it would be just another proof that the debate is over and the Armageddon will arrive either tomorrow or during the day after tomorrow.
The prettiest and brightest young American women were asked whether math should be taught in schools.
Thanks to Honza. ;-)
If the new austerity measures and privatization had been voted down, the Greek default would occur almost instantly - not later than in mid July 2011. PASOK needed 150 Yes votes in the 300-strong Parliament. They got 155 Yes votes - which is the same as the number of PASOK deputies.
Only one opposition deputy supported the bill; he or she compensated for one PASOK deputy who opposed it and was immediately fired from PASOK.
There have been a couple of articles in the media that tried to answer the question why Al Gore has led the warming movement to one of the most spectacular ccollapses in the history of ideologies and fads.
Mead: Why Al Gore is a failure, part oneI won't summarize all the texts but let me mention some points. Maed, the author of the first pair of articles which originally appeared in The American Interest and which was later promoted by Fox, is a professor of international politics, a registered Democrat and an Obama supporter. He points out that Gore hasn't won any political battle using his brains and muscles since the 1990 reelection in Tennessee. Leaders may have character flaws, Maed admits and demonstrates using a few examples, but they can't afford character flaws that are directly linked to what their leadership is supposed to be about.
Mead: Why Al Gore is a failure, part two (Business Insider)
Al Gore in denial (Front Page Magazine)
Why does Al Gore sound superficial on climate change rhetoric (International Business Times)
Global warming hysteria: Gore's profound failure of leadership (First Things)
The Mendacity of Al Gore's Rolling Stone article (Global Warming.ORG, 3 parts)
A leader of the jihad against CO2 simply can't afford to have the "carbon footprint" of a large African village. And in fact, because the population growth is a factor in the equation and Al Gore even wants to direct his next crusade into your bed (see also Al Gore's ugly rhetoric is nothing new), he can't have the record of overf*cking and of excessive children production, either. Al Gore's reproductive footprint is the polite word.
If you want to get a fair intuition how a black hole emits the Hawking radiation so that it stays unitary and the exterior and the interior remain separated in spite of that, you should sort Rubik's cube many times:
I just returned from Prague which I visit once a month in average - however, this time it was just 10 days after the Festschrift.
We shared a 1-hour talk with Kesten Green and Scott Armstrong on global warming. It was a special event during the 31st Annual International Symposium on Forecasting which took place at the Prague School of Economics (VŠE) which was considered a high school according to the lore of my college - the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics - but which kind of impressed me today, anyway.
I gave a fast review of the natural science behind the climate change - cycles that change the temperature, climate sensitivity and ways to derive it, various properties of various CO2 levels, other influences etc. Obviously, you can't cover everything in 20 minutes. ;-)
Most of the central banks in the world continue to keep the interest rates at absurdly low levels. The real interest rates - which are the nominal ones minus the inflation rate - are negative at most places - I say places, and not currencies, because the eurozone has a country-dependent inflation rate despite the common ECB interest rates.
These low rates encourage people and governments to insanely increase their debt because they think they can get away with it.
But 56 central banks pretty much from the whole world have representatives in the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) which happens to have the same acronym as the Czech FBI/CIA combined. ;-) It's the central bank of almost all central banks. Those representatives of the world agreed on Sunday that the interest rates have to rise globally: Reuters.
I don't discuss preprints that are disconnected from (or in contradiction with) the body of the research and findings about the physics beyond the Standard Model too often, especially not those that have 0 citations from other people. But this one is kind of fun.
And should America return to a gold standard?
According to CNN and others, Ron Paul, a thoughtful, peace-loving, and freedom-loving 2012 U.S. presidential candidate, is worried that the gold bullion from the United States Bullion Repository in Fort Knox, Kentucky is gone. Or it's been replaced by gold-coated wolfram bars.
He proposes a bill that will verify whether the gold is there. His worries are based on internet rumors that were actually being resent by many powerful people in the financial world - so it wasn't just about some fringe homeless hacks. A few years ago, it was found out in Hong Kong that some of the gold bars were actually tungsten (wolfram) steel bars coated by gold.
These fake golden bars were produced during the Clinton years, about 15 years ago - I don't want to call them Summers years because it could have been before Larry Summers, too.
Gene has sent me a link to this fascinating article in the Wall Street Journal:
If you're just thinking about buying an airplane, the price was $18.2 billion which is about $90 million per piece.
On Monday, the U.S. Supreme Court released its verdict in the case with a technical name
Just like Acropolis... I think that if Greece is ever revived, they should repair the Parthenon and other buildings - to make them usable - because the ruins will otherwise remind them of the default.
The first two of them are climate realists.
The third one is the only climate alarmist but you shouldn't be surprised that despite the name of the magazine that published his essay, Nature, he is not a natural scientist and he knows nothing about natural science. Mr Kysar is employed by the Yale University's Law School as a Professor Struggling To Contaminate Judicial Systems By the Green Ideology.
What a terrible name for an occupation. And indeed, this guy is doing his job vigorously.
People have observed billions of objects and experienced trillions of events and processes.
When a monkey was born somewhere on the Earth a million of years ago and inherited almost no serious knowledge from her ancestors, and instead, she was just asked to behave as a homo sapiens, she had to be overwhelmed! ;-)
No surprise that she had to see dragons and gods behind every corner.
It's just so confusing. And the math class is tough!
However, she has tried hard - and especially he has tried hard - and many things started to make sense. Those trillions of events and processes suddenly looked like manifestations of the same underlying logic. In many cases, pairs of very different objects or pairs of very different processes turned out to be manifestations of the same underlying physics and the same underlying logic and maths.
Jill Singer of the Australian "mainstream" Herald Sun newspapers has proposed a final solution to the problem of the climate skeptics:
I'm prepared to keep an open mind and propose another stunt for climate sceptics - put your strong views to the test by exposing yourselves to high concentrations of either carbon dioxide or some other colourless, odourless gas - say, carbon monoxide.She will kindly keep an open mind once the world's 4 billion climate skeptics are killed in extermination camps with a mixture of CO and CO2. Note the "clever" method by which she has "confused" the carbon monoxide, which is toxic, with the carbon dioxide, which is totally harmless for humans.
You wouldn't see or smell anything. Nor would your anti-science nonsense be heard of again. How very refreshing.
A shower in Dachau. A real shower.
Those of us who know something about the history realize that Frau Jill Singer's ideological predecessors have used the very same "trick" in Auschwitz-Birkenau. They would tell the inmates that they would go to have a shower. There would be H2O coming from the tubes. Instead, it was CO or Zyklon-B. The gas chambers were disguised as shower rooms even though some people argue that this particular trick has been a myth.
Update: I assure nasty hardcore radical anonymous people who were threatening me with spreading lies about me that I am not a holocaust denier and if someone will spread lies of this caliber about me, I will try to fight them in the court.
Around the midnight, the Greek Parliament will vote on confidence in Papandreou's new socialist government: it contains a new finance minister, a guy who almost managed to bring Greece into bankruptcy just because of the 2004 Olympics.
If the government survives the vote, and the odds are just somewhat higher than 50 percent, they should wait for the next week and try to ask the Parliament to approve the measures needed for the next tranche for mid July.
Slovak finance minister Mr Ivan Mikloš, one of a very small number of similar economically trained politicians who have both a brain and a spine, made it very clear that if Greece fails to fulfill these conditions, it must immediately declare default.
“If they don’t approve all that needs to be approved, then there is nothing to talk about. Greece will have to declare a default.”If anything goes wrong in the Greek Parliament, it's likely that Mr Mikloš will be joined in his "No way" by his Dutch counterpart de Jager.
Meanwhile, British PM David Cameron who is already responsibly planning for the official Greek bankruptcy has vowed not to pay a penny to the new Greek bailouts.
At the same moment, the eurozone was thinking that the EUR 12 billion tranche is independent - and may be discussed separately - from another bailout. This reasoning was identified as incorrect by John Lipsky of the IMF. He said that the IMF will block already the EUR 12 billion tranche if there is no visible agreement in the EU when it comes to the next bailout. And you should have no doubts about it - there is no agreement about it!
Meanwhile, there is a growing consensus that any further bailout has to be partially paid by private investors. Rating agency Fitch - and, somewhat less explicitly, also Standard & Poor's - has made it clear that any such participation will be classified as a default because it's inconceivable that such a participation could be genuinely voluntary. So the default will be declared even if the next bailout proceeds according to the current most pro-Greek plans.
Michael Mann and 5 other, less infamous would-be "scientists" have just published a paper about the hockey stick "scientific" method applied to the sea level:
Picture taken from a Real Climate article about the paper.
Yes, it is a slightly warped hockey stick! ;-)
Quantum mechanics implies that the angular momentum is quantized: in particular, its component J_z, with respect to any axis of z, has to be a multiple of hbar/2. Why it is so?
Animation by Flip Tanedo who wrote a nice article about related topics.Well, if you rotate the object around the z-axis, its wave function is changing. If the object is found in a state that is an eigenstate of J_z, it has to be transforming to its multiple and only its phase has to be changing. And it has to change by the factor of exp(i.m.phi) if you rotate the object by the angle phi. Because you have to get to the same state when you rotate the object by 4.pi i.e. by 720 degrees, m has to be either integer or integer+1/2.
Now, I deliberately wrote the (true) previous sentence so that many readers are inevitably screaming: Why 720 degrees and not 360 degrees? WTF? Well, the answer is that only the rotation by 720 degrees is continuously connected to "doing nothing"; a rotation by 360 degrees is not.
Christopher Booker invented an excellent title for his article - Greenpeace in Our Time. It is a variation of Peace in Our Time, a speech given by Neville Chamberlain in which he boasted that he had betrayed his Czechoslovak allies and Herr Hitler was his new best friend. Together, these two guys would guarantee peace for decades.
It turns out that Pachauri also wrote a preface for the Greenpeace document that was renamed as the IPCC document. Pachauri rejected any kind of policy against the conflict of interests for the 5th report: no surprise, the whole work of the IPCC and Pachauri himself is all about the conflict of interests.
Greenpeace, hydrodam bosses control IPCC WG3
Some of the media have surprisingly publicized the findings by Mark Lynas, a well-known environmentalist and a crusader against global warming, who has looked at the latest and final version of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Working Group III report that was released a few days ago. (Well, Lynas probably learned it from Steve McIntyre but assigning credit to the right people would be too much to ask for from the media.)
Picture from Jo Nova's blog.
Reuters and many others are informing us about a cute observation with a cute interpretation.
On March 28th, 2011, NASA's Swift aircraft has seen an interesting event similar to the gamma ray bursts.
The source, named Sw 1644+57, was analyzed by your humble correspondent's former fellow Harvard junior fellow, Joshua Bloom, who is a big gamma ray burst specialist and who spent lots of time explaining to us the not yet quite settled science about the cause of the gamma ray bursts, aside from the methods of seeing them.
I think that many of you remember that Obama's voters used to be fanatical opponents of the missile defense system proposed during the administration of George Bush Jr. We were constantly told that the system was immoral and it didn't work, anyway. Obama would only make statements that were compatible with the opposition. He didn't want to pursue untested systems, he told us.
A couple of years later, it is clear that Obama is continuing with pretty much the same plans that George Bush Jr would pursue if he continued to be the president. The system may obviously be very useful and it may significantly diminish the capacity of rogue nations to hurt America, to say the least. Bush has always been right. Even though Obama has adopted Bush's plans, the critics of George Bush Jr are suddenly silent.
The missile defense system was just a theme they used to attack Bush but what they really care about is a Greek-style big government and they still know that Obama is more likely to bring it than Bush which is why they don't attack Obama for his resuscitation of the missile defense plans.
I wish happy birthday to Gene!
Yesterday, Leonard Susskind and his exp(exp(exp(exp(120)))) clones in the hypermultiverse celebrated their 71st birthday, congratulations, too.
Your humble correspondent has just returned from another celebration - of the Czech President's 70th birthday - which took place at the Prague Castle. Václav Klaus is an unmatched heavyweight of Czech politics. Having spent more than 21 years at the very top of the Czech politics, he has already beaten the founder of Czechoslovakia, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who was our president for 17 years (1918-1935). Well, just to be sure, Franz Joseph I of Austria was our emperor since 1848 to 1916 - almost 68 years. ;-)
There are many legends about Klaus's extraordinary abilities etc. Many of them sound as jokes but all of them are true. :-) Our leader is clearly in a top Olympic condition. You want to be in this shape when you're 70 - and maybe even when you're 60 or 50. :-)
I was preparing a short climate talk and I decided it was sensible to at least mildly study the newest paper by Richard Lindzen and Yong-Sang Choi that will appear in Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences:
The authors have admitted several errors of their 2009 paper that were pointed out by subsequent papers and they believe that they have addressed them and the mistakes are fixed in the new 2011 paper.
There are three light weakly interacting neutrino flavors. In fact, this figure has been measured by experiments that investigated the decay width of the Z-boson. This width is proportional to the number of the relevant neutrino species and allows you to say that there are roughly 3.01 plus minus 0.02 of them - or something like that. ;-)
Neutrinos were first claimed to exist by Wolfgang Pauli who used energy conservation. But they were given their name by someone who has found many things about them and the processes in which they participate, Enrico Fermi (picture above). He chose the funny little Italian suffix -ino not only to distinguish them from neutrons but also to place a piece of Italian terminology into physics for the future times when his nation may possibly become an ethnic group of savages who will deny that the nuclei store lots of cheap energy.
The Standard Model assumes that only left-handed neutrinos (and right-handed antineutrinos) are light enough; their right-handed neutrino (and left-handed antineutrino) partners are probably very heavy - near the GUT scale. Those heavy partner masses are Majorana masses. Then there are electroweak-scale Dirac masses mixing the light and heavy components.
When the heavy partners are integrated out, we obtain just the light species with new Majorana masses that are very light. They're lighter than the Dirac masses by the same factor as the Dirac masses are lighter than the heavy Majorana masses (so the Dirac masses are near the geometric average of the tiny and huge Majorana masses we have mentioned). That's why the mechanism leading to this relationship is known as the seesaw mechanism.
If clouds or anything else have prevented from seeing the lunar eclipse, here is a video:
A general strike is crippling Greece today.
In principle, strike may be a legitimate tool of the employees to show or try to show that their work is more important and valuable than what the employer seems to indicate by her behavior. This claim may turn out to be right. However, this claim may also turn out to be wrong. Only if the strikers bear some responsibility for their decisions and behavior and if they are at risk of losing advantages because of their decisions, strikes may turn out to be a tool that improves the life of the society.
Once a nation enters the mode of thinking in which the employees are always right - because the government and the employers who are in charge are just reflections of the same striking employees - the nation is just destined to drop to the bottom of the sea. Glub glub glub. Such a nation is going to give ever greater advantages to the employees for ever smaller amount of work.
Tomorrow, there will be a strike in the Czech Republic. Trains and various cities' public transportation systems will be among the sectors that will make many consumers upset. Of course, the strike won't occur in as dramatic conditions as Greece but it's still annoying.
PhysOrg.com and others are writing about a talk in New Mexico where solar physicists have hypothesized that the Solar Cycle 25 will be delayed or it won't occur at all.
The black region on the picture indicates the absence of activity near the Sun's poles. This activity should be occurring over there as a preparation for the Solar Cycle 25 expected to begin around 2020. Note that we entered Solar Cycle 24 a few years ago and a cycle lasts 11 years in average.
You may have read about living lasers that were built out of proteins. Fun.
First: major LHC detectors reach one inverse femtobarn!
By 21:10 Prague Summer Time tonight, the CMS and ATLAS at CERN have collected 1/fb of data each: see viXra blog.
This was the original plan for the whole year 2011 - and it's reached in mid June! The figure includes 47/pb from 2010, but 47/pb is collected in 36 hours in average these days, so on Wednesday, the 2011 run will probably reach a femtobarn, too. About 95% of the data have been recorded, so in a few more days, one also surpasses 1 recorded femtobarn of the data.
The LHC could collect 4/fb by the end of 2011 and, because of expected luminosity increases, 15/fb by the end of 2012 which should be enough to discover the Higgs boson even at the most inaccessible places. In fact, if the Higgs boson isn't in the data that have already been collected by now, then it's probably lighter than 135 GeV. It follows that the vacuum of the Standard Model is unstable and needs new, SUSY-like particles to be saved.
Now, let's look at the opposite side of the Atlantic
A Japanese translation of the text below is available.
In March, Tommaso Dorigo hyped a preprint by the CDF Collaboration,
M(top) - M(antitop) = -3.3 +- 1.4(stat) +- 1.0(syst)Using this lousy measurement, they wrote a paper phrased in such a way that they offered a 2-sigma evidence that the CPT "hypothesis" (which, of course, implies that antiparticles have to have exactly the same masses as particles) was wrong.
CDF, a pretty detector that has produced lots of rubbish lately (and maybe it's the people behind it who did it)
This is just offensive. It's the kind of shoddy research with the most sensationalist claims supported by the weakest possible (and, independently of that, flawed) evidence that belongs to the climate "science" but surely not to particle physics.
Warning: the video below is amazingly offensive.
It still got 95% of upvotes among the 1,000 votes from 50,000 viewers. An op-ed by Bill McKibben is being read and illustrated by a Stephen Thomson of Plomomedia.com.
A two-day referendum in Italy has just ended. Silvio Berlusconi has encouraged people not to vote.
Italy has its Greenpeace whackos, too
The referendum will be valid because almost 60 percent of the voters participated. They were asked to answer four questions. About 94% of the voters mindlessly said Yes to all of them. All the "Yes" answers mean "scr*w Berlusconi". One of them also scr*ws nuclear energy as a side-effect.
A genuinely touching mini-movie.
In May 1942, the Czechoslovak government in London decided that the "blonde beast" and one of the main architects of the holocaust, Reinhard Heydrich, has committed too many crimes.
Even though he had never run in any elections, he was behaving as a kind of dictator on our territory, calling himself the "protector" of Bohemia and Moravia. Thousands of Czech people became the victims of his terror.
Many people are incapable of understanding that the experimental as well as theoretical evidence shows that quantum mechanics is right.
They can't see or don't want to see that the world is described by state vectors that inevitably have a probabilistic interpretation, that evolve according to linear equations and satisfy the superposition principle, that all measurable properties of the physical systems are described by linear Hermitian operators, and that probabilities are the only predictable things that always arise from squared magnitudes of some complex probability amplitudes.
Various people who dream about the resuscitation of classical physics and a reversal of the last 85 years of physics have done pretty much all the conceivable mistakes and have proposed lots of diverse, deluded, and fundamentally flawed schemes whose only purpose is to hide the most important insight of the 20th century science, the framework of quantum mechanics, from the authors' eyesight.
Richard Lindzen has informed me about some adventures he recently experienced while offering his new paper written together with Choi to PNAS, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
While it's standard that 98% of the submissions over there get published, the people in charge of PNAS guaranteed that the likes of Gavin Schmidt would be the reviewers. With some additional not-quite-standard procedures, the Lindzen-Choi paper got rejected. So there exists some seemingly polite but inherently nasty correspondence that shows how it exactly happened.
I decided not to run a detailed story on this material because it seemed somewhat frustrating and personal to me (while not sufficiently "fiery") and I was sure that there would be people coming to the discussion - usually people who have no clue just opinions but sometimes semi-qualified people with their own interests - who would be saying "You see! Lindzen got what he deserved! That's how he should be treated. Peer review in action." and so on.
And I just didn't want Richard to be undergoing such things. Not just because of him - he can really withstand such things. But also because of others among us who find Richard's authority to be a helpful island of relative certainty, nostalgia over old-fashioned structure of the scientific community, and a beacon of hope that it will be restored in the world of climatology and other politically loaded disciplines sometime in the future - a world that is so messed up today.
The claim of the CDF Collaboration that they have observed a new particle similar to a Z'-boson near 150 GeV decaying to 2 jets and produced together with a W-boson was just dismissed by their colleagues and competitors at the same Tevatron, the D0 Collaboration, that is working with the rather ugly and non-compact detector on the picture:
The CMS Collaboration has published a new paper that also answers the question whether the Earth is going to be swallowed by a man-made black hole.
Bloomberg, dozens of other outlets and my fellow gangster in Mafia Wars :-) Darcy Nelson have informed your humble correspondent that Australia is planning to shoot a portion of its 1.2 million camels.
Whoever manages to do it will receive carbon credits. And you know, carbon credits are the most valuable thing you can get in your life - they're tickets to get 72 virgins in the heaven, among many other things.
These guys just earned their carbon credits for the vacations including flights into long-haul destinations.
Why? Because they're farting. Every year, they release 45 kg of methane in average which has the same greenhouse potential as 1 ton of CO2 which costs 18 euros or so in indulgences. So they want to kill a camel because of 18 euros. According to the IPCC figures, complete extermination of 1.2 million camels in Australia will cool the globe by 0.00001 °C (mean value).
Your humble correspondent "driving" a camel a decade ago.
The animals live for 50 years so and a typical adult killed camel may live for 20 extra years - so you "save" 360 euros in fraudulent indulgences by killing the poor animal. Meanwhile, you may have failed to notice that the animal is actually more expensive than that.
There is still a lot of confusion and misinformation concerning the question whether there has been a cooling trend or a warming trend between some moment XY and the most recent months.
To lift the confusion, I (and Wolfram Mathematica 7.0.1) have calculated 3500 linear regressions and the result is offered to you in this truly tall PDF file:
Iran is going to install centrifuges into its heavily fortified Fordo facility inside the mountains near Qom, it announced today.
The ultimate purpose of this move is to triple the enrichment capacity. They also say that they could eventually abolish the Natanz side which doesn't have to be the case.
The (nearly) 256^4 = 4+ billion IPv4 addresses identifying the computers on the Internet are gone and this system of identification has therefore entered the cap-and-trade system. ;-)
Microsoft has already bought some allowances. One IP address is about 11 dollars, much like a ton of CO2 emission rights. ;-)
Many ad hoc tricks exist to circumvent the capacity limitation but a new global system that will simply eliminate the need for tricks may eventually become preferred. The IPv6 system - designed to distinguish 2^128 hosts - not far from 10^123 bits that can be stored in the visible patch of our (nearly) de Sitter space - is the leading candidate. Operating systems and, to a lesser extent, routers have been trained to be compatible with it for a decade.
However, only a few percent of the Internet traffic is running through IPv6 at this moment - it is mostly peer-to-peer exchange of the data and most of it is arguably violating someone's copyrights. Turning IPv4 off would almost surely mean an unbelievable hassle at this moment. Fortunately, it's not needed.
On the picture, Czech President Václav Klaus is unveiling a giant Czech-made bucket wheel excavator KK1300; click the picture to zoom in. The Czech ministry of trade has decided to help Czech companies to secure strategic raw materials by helping them to buy up the mines in Germany, Poland, and perhaps Ukraine, and to overtake the rest of Europe a week or two later. ;-)
Today, he gave a talk (target URL in German language) at the Czech-German economic forum in Hamburg, Germany. He praised the economic relationships, didn't forget to mention that Czechia's exports to Germany exceed the imports, and perhaps also appreciated tasty bean sprouts they have in Hamburg. ;-)
Before it was determined that the Spanish cucumbers were not the culprit, Klaus criticized the hysterical speculations that Spanish cucumbers were the source of the illness. Even your humble correspondent failed to realize that this claim could have been bogus.
Daily Mail posted an article about the natural reforestation of the world:
Czech president Václav Klaus will celebrate his 70th birthday in two weeks. If you need some contacts to the Prague Castle where he works, for example because you wanted to send a gift, here they are.
(The photograph is genuine, not edited. Klaus wanted to provide the people with some data to decide whether he and Santa Claus are the same person.)
Our leader, a well-known climate skeptic, has previously recommended Australian prime minister Julia Gillard to listen to the true climate change experts who live in her country, e.g. Bob Carter in particular.
The Australian and Monsters and Critics have already figured out what her reaction will be. Dear Australian readers, your prime minister won't meet our president after he completes his 16,000-kilometer flight! Her obsession with the global warming hoax is so intense that she is going to put the Australian-Czech relationships at risk.
(But calculate how many pounds of CO2 will be emitted by the aircraft - and no results!)
The questions were asked by Mr Vítězslav Kremlík M.A., a historian and a blogger at klimaskeptik.cz; see original URL
An interview with Ing. Ivanka Charvátová, CSc. from the Geophysical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Prague). The story of one politically incorrect scientific discovery.
(Translation of the original Czech interview published at Osel.cz in May 2011 - link - also by V. Kremlík)
Motion of the barycenter of solar system relative to the Sun.
Your field of study in the Geophysical Institute is solar inertial motion (SIM). Could you explain what it is?
It is a movement of the Sun around the barycentre (centre of gravity) of our solar system. This motion is due to the varying position of the planets, especially the giant planets.
Already Sir Isaac Newton in his PRINCIPIA (1687) intuitively came to the following conclusion: “… since that centre of gravity (centre of mass of the solar system) is continually at rest, the Sun, according to the various positions of the planets, must continually move every day, but will never recede far from that centre.” This effect is not insignificant. The Sun moves across an area the size of 4.3 solar radiuses, i.e. 0.02 AU or 3.106 km. As a coincidence, the average solar speed is around 50 km/hr. Just like the speed of a car driving downtown. The first study about SIM was written by P.D. Jose in year 1965.
When I was at faculty of Harvard, Ed Fredkin was among the fun and famous people who came to me and wanted to chat on a periodic basis. He told me that Richard Feynman had died some time ago but Feynman used to provide him with some vital feedback concerning Fredkin's ambitious digital theories about the Universe. So Fredkin found it natural that I would replace Feynman's functions.
I enjoyed the meeting with him but I couldn't afford to be distracted on a periodic basis.
Moreover, I've been really overwhelmed by such things since the middle of my undergraduate studies. As a freshman, I could have been open to a curious debate about "discrete vs continuous" but I quickly found out that the "discrete champions" simply get stuck with totally elementary things and simple errors. They were apparently denying empirically extracted principles that I consider essential in the structure of our knowledge about physics - and they may have been denying all empirical data, after all - and further discussions were just dragging me to the bottom of the sea.
It has always looked to me that I was nearly the only person on the planet who hadn't lost his mind concerning these matters. These patently wrong opinions - e.g. that the world has to be fundamentally digital - seem to be everywhere even today; people's time spent with the computers is arguably making this thing even worse. I am sure that most of the best physicists don't think it's right - just like the top physicists of the previous generations - but the top physicists today rarely talk to anyone outside the ivory towers so you don't really know. Even I am not really sure whether they have ever thought about these issues and what they have found.
Update: However, I just learned about the excellent essay by David Tong for the FQXI "discrete vs continuous" essay contest where he earned a silver prize even though the golden essay is kind of silly. He explains how all integers in Nature are derived, "emergent", and ultimately approximate and/or ill-defined. I would endorse every letter of his essay.Oh yeah, I have to include a picture of Steven Spielberg to clarify why a waitress wanted Fredkin's autograph. ;-)
He starts with a silly quote by Kronecker - on "God who made the integers; everything else is an invention of Man" - that's been debunked by nearly all subsequent developments in maths. Tong shows that the integers are derived from more fundamental equations, if they exist (e.g. "n" in the Hydrogen atom's energy shows that "God only made the complex numbers and everything else follows from Schrödinger's equation"), and ill-defined in many other contexts (number of planets, particles, particle species, and even dimensions), and ends up with chiral fermions (that can't be put on lattice) as another way to prove that we don't live in a Matrix. ;-)
A priori, Tong says, the universe could have been discrete. However, remarkably, a posteriori, we were allowed to accumulate a large number of proofs that it is not.
So the result is that the pop-science has totally taken over the broader perception of physics. And the paradigm that the Universe is fundamentally digital is one of those holy and popular albeit flagrantly wrong concepts. I would have enjoyed talking with Fredkin on a periodic basis but only if I hadn't been exposed to thousands of deluded people who were not willing or capable to understand very simple arguments.
Moreover, I was kind of sure that Fredkin had to have heard all the disproofs he would hear from me from Feynman - every sane physicist has to converge to similar ideas about these matters and be able to produce counterexamples to any of the proposed discrete theories because they're really dictated by the knowledge about the discipline - so I couldn't have contributed anything truly "novel", I was afraid, because only positive things are viewed as "novel" by the discrete physicists. The digital Universe has become a religion. An insane one.
Phil Gibbs just posted a link to the videos of the World Science Festival in New York and one of them is called "Rebooting the Cosmos: Is the Universe the Ultimate Computer?". Here is the video:
I have added some estimates of the frequency of quakes of different magnitudes and cost-and-benefits analysis of evacuation at the end
Another example of the insane witch hunts that are gradually returning our world back to Salem 1692.
Vitalik sent me a link to a stunning article at the Fox News server,
On their conference notes page at CERN, the ATLAS Collaboration began to produce many new papers that use the 2011 data. At this moment, the fifth one is
Search for squarks and gluinos using final states with jets and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector in sqrt(s) = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions (PDF)They studied lepton-free events - dijet, three-jet, four-jet, with possible missing transverse energy - in order to find supersymmetry's gluinos. They didn't find any significant evidence of them which raised the lower bound to 725 GeV for the gluino mass in general and about 1 TeV for gluino mass if it is equal to the squarks' mass.
Miss Gluino, a vampire alchemist, is looking pale in the new paper. She will have to eat some blood, gore, and al-chemical food and become more massive in order to survive.
A rather remarkable triplet of similar events with the dijet energy near 3.33 TeV is the most spectacular hint of a new particle
Note that two days ago, I discussed the string theory Z'-boson explanation of the 150 GeV CDF Wjj bump. The newest paper predicted another Z''-boson with the mass of 3.* TeV - page 7 top. With a modest dose of optimism, ATLAS has just confirmed a stringy prediction.
But not so fast...
Phil Gibbs was the first man who spotted three radically new ATLAS preprints on a CERN page that at least two of us constantly watch. ;-)
Update of the Search for New Physics in the Dijet Mass Distribution in 163/pb of pp Collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector (PDF)So far, the papers by CMS and ATLAS have only used at most 43 inverse picobarns of the 2010 data. Suddenly, they jumped to 205/pb, 163/pb of which was gotten in 2011.
Search for high-mass states with one muon plus missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector (PDF)
Search for high-mass dilepton resonances in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment (PDF)
I decided that a reason contributing to the people's misunderstanding of the meaning and validity of quantum mechanics is the prevailing focus on Schrödinger's equation as the basic dynamical law.
Felix Bloch (picture) is, together with Lev Landau and perhaps also John von Neumann, credited with the 1927 discovery or invention of the density matrix.
This equation helps to mislead the people into thinking that the wave function is analogous to a classical wave - an electromagnetic wave, for example. In fact, Erwin Schrödinger himself has never quite understood the meaning of his own wave function.
In my current opinion, each of the three alternative dynamical equations
- equation for the density matrix
- Heisenberg equations for the operators
- Feynman's path integral
When I was a kid, something like a 10-year-old one, I didn't have the feeling that the contemporary human society is obsessed with irrationalities.
This experience of course depended on the environment; I guess that people such as my grandfather and the teachers at school were rational people which was why I made the implicit extrapolation that the mankind approaches similar issues in similar ways.
Examination of a witch
I have never really understood the psychology of the medieval zealots who would burn people at stake just because those people realized that the Earth wasn't a center of the Solar System or the Universe, for that matter. Where did such extraordinarily obsessed idiots come from, I was asking? Something like that is clearly impossible today, isn't it?
Of course, there were many other crazy stories that I used to view as a part of the history that could never return. When we visited the Salem Witch Museum 8 years ago or so, I learned some details about the Salem witch trials. As recently as in 1692-1693, the people were burning or hanging or beheading girls because a witness claimed that they saw ghosts around them or because dogs fed urine reacted in one way or another. Families just blamed bad crops, illness of the family, or a death of a child on a local outcast. That was enough for the mass hysteria to "ethically" punish the unlucky girl.
Microsoft is catching up.
The video looks pretty impressive and the inspiration from iOS in particular is hard to hide.
As of 2011, no sane person seriously doubts that string theory is the right framework that describes the Universe around us. However, there remain uncertainties about the inner structure of the relevant string vacuum. String/M-theory possesses many four-dimensional solutions that qualitatively resemble our world.
Those solutions are connected on the configuration space of the theory and may be related by various dualities. However, the known stringy descriptions that are semi-realistic and weakly coupled may still be divided into several major categories:
- Weakly coupled heterotic E8 x E8 strings
- Heterotic M-theory in 11 dimensions; the strongly coupled limit of (1) with two end-of-the-world domain walls
- M-theory on singular 7-dimensional G2-holonomy manifolds
- Type IIA orbifold/orientifold braneworlds
- F-theory on local singularities